Introduction

In 2014 the centenary of the outbreak of World War One, Cumnock History Group began researching the names on the Cumnock War Memorial plus other men and women with Cumnock connections mentioned on the Commonwealth War Graves Commission or in the Cumnock Chronicle of the time. The research is not limited to those who died but also to men and women who served, using family history information.

The group would like to appeal to individuals with knowledge of family members for photographs of the soldier, either in uniform or not, and photos of medals or other memorabilia eg letters sent home from the Front. If you would be prepared to share these on this site, please email the web manager cumnockhistory [at] icloud.com The group is willing to share any copies of documents found with the soldier's descendants.

Wednesday, 21 February 2024

The names on the War Memorial

The War Memorial (pictured to the right) is in the New Cemetery in Glaisnock Street. It was unveiled  by Lt-Col Archibald McInnes Shaw of Ballochmyle on Saturday 25th June 1921. There are 8 bronze plaques with 7 of them with the names of 117 men associated with Cumnock. Is your ancestor among them? Get in touch with your memories.

The names are organised first by rank,  hen alphabetically.
Click below for all the names

Scroll over names to find information. Names are being added as they are discovered.

PANEL 1
Lieut. Edward Knight, R.S.F.
Lieut. A.J.B. Milne, Gordons

Lieut. William McNaughton, R.S.F.

P.O. James Young, R.N.
C.S.M.Robert W. Brown, A.I.Y.

C.S.M. Robert Orr M.M. & Bar R.S.F.
Sergt. Robert Baird M.M. R.S. 

Sergt. George Burns, A.&.S.H. 

Sergt. Robert Gilmour, R.S.F.

Sergt. James B. Johnstone, Camerons
Sergt. John Nicol, Seaforths
Sergt. William McCaa, R.F.A.

Corpl. John Black, R.S.F.
Corpl. Hugh Brogan, R.S.F.

Corpl. James Lennox, R.S.F.

Corpl. John McKinnon M.M. R.E.
Corpl. George Neil, H.L.I.


Wednesday, 11 March 2020

History of the War Memorial

By February 1920 the War Memorial fund met and found they had £748 left after the payment of the Parish Medals and the the Welcome Home Dance. Further fundraising was required to pay for the memorial.
By March five sculptors were asked to submit ideas and 16 different designs were looked at including; a 16-foot high granite column surmounted by a metal-cast Lowland Scot Soldier sculpture on a 4-foot square granite block on a base costing £1,200 and a Celtic Cross in red granite and lead lettering costing £1,000.
Several different sites were looked at including the Square, the grounds of the school at the Barrhill, in front of the Town Hall, the site of the new houses at Gemmell Avenue and the central space at the new cemetery – the latter was chosen.
By April the winning design by monumental sculptors Mathew Muir & Co from Kilmarnock was chosen. 
The memorial was described as “Built of grey Creetown granite and 20-feet high and 7-foot wide at the base. The underpart and body of the structure is octagonal having 8 panels for names. This is surmounted by a 9-foot column all in one stone which terminates with an emblem of a martyr’s crown above which is a ball, an emblem of the new world. A low coping in the same material will enclose the space.” 
Bronze tablets with raised lettering were chosen which were slightly more expensive that lead lettering. The total cost of the monument was over £2,000 – all raised by further fundraising.
Mathew Muir Advert


By May 1920 the names to be featured on the memorial were published in the Cumnock Chronicle and any additions called for. Quite how the names were selected is not clear. Presumably they were included if Cumnock was on their service records as either a place of birth, residence or enlistment, or if a local resident wished a relative to be added. By July the contract had been signed with Matthew Muir and Co and work on the monument had begun. By January 1921 work was progressing and a report from the committee stated that the granite part of the monument was lying at Dumfries ready to be sent on for erection but there was a delay with the eight inscribed panels. Four of these were complete and four still to cast but due to the slow process this would take a few more weeks to finish. By April 1921 plans were being finalised for an unveiling ceremony in June.
Cumnock Chronicle announcement 1920

The memorial was unveiled by Lieutenant Colonel Archibald McInnes Shaw of Ballochmyle on Saturday 25 June 1921 in the presence of several thousand onlookers. It was an ideal summer day and people met at the Town Hall where the gathered soldiers, bands, organisations and platform party were slowly led up Glaisnock Street by a pipe-band playing Flowers of the Forest. In the cemetery a platform had been built behind the monument and facing the gates and once the crowd had taken their place the Rev John Warrick led the dedication prayer. After this Provost Andrew Millar made the unveiling ceremony address and handed over to Lieutenant Colonel Archibald McInnes Shaw who removed the Union Jack covering the name plaques and paid tribute to the men who had given their lives and to the men and women who had remained at home and supported the fighting men. Rev Warrick gave the benediction and many wreaths and bouquets were laid at the base of the monument. 

The following day, there was an almost constant stream of visitors to the cemetery, and a unanimous opinion was expressed on the beauty of the design of the memorial and on the clear and lasting lettering on the inscriptions.



Tuesday, 10 March 2020

Cumnock Chronicle 2014 War Articles

In 2014 we ran some WW1 articles in the Cumnock Chronicle.
August 13 2014
August 20 2014
August 27 2014
September 7 2014

Cumnock Armistice Events 2019

November 2018 saw the 100th Anniversary of the WW1 Armistice where Cumnock History Group in partnership with the Corra Foundation, Cumnock Action Plan and local organisations marked this milestone event by involving the wider community in a series of town centre celebratory, educational and family fun events, workshops and activities on the armistice theme. These were inclusive events for all. 

Read more on our website HERE

Painted Memorial Stones 
We are still researching the stories of the 876 men and women from Cumnock who served in WW1 - 192 never returned. 

To commemorate them we invited schools, community groups and individuals to paint stones with these names and a red poppy - we had a fantastic response from Barshare Primary, Greenmill Primary, Netherthird Primary, St Patrick’s Primary, Logan Primary, Hillside School, MIMA Junior Youth Club, Lisalanna, Colour Splash, The Guides, 0-100 Club, Things Tae Dae, 4 Connections, Bobby Grierson, Mary Little, Shaun Lowrie, Aimee Muggridge and Isobel Shaw.

The stones have found a permanent home around the War Memorial at the new cemetery and at Lugar Church.


Poppy Making
We asked for volunteers to knit, crochet or make felt, material and paper poppies to decorate the Town Hall for the Welcome Home Tea Dance on 10th November. It was spectacular with over 3,000 poppies!

Thanks to the following for making poppies for our beautiful Poppy Curtain.
Morag Gordon, Betty Outram, Sandra Faddes, Maureen Murphy, Roberta McGee, Betty Fleming, Jessica, Abi, Hannah, Mary McClatchy, Margaret Cochrane, Donna Mullin, Mary Hope, Elizabeth Kay, Laura Carmichael, Louise Quinn, Claire Dalrymple, Susan Brown, staff at Queen Margaret Academy, June Black, Lauren Collow, Linda Sutherland, Amanda Dobie, Anne Griffiths, Kim Hill, Catherine McConnell, Evelyn McBride, Maggie Goudie, 0-100 Club, Shaun Lowrie, Sorn Primary School, Co-op Funeral Care, Things Tae Dae and others not wishing to be named.

WW1 Poster Design Workshop
Saturday 27th October - Yipworld, Barrhill Road. We looked at original WW1 posters and used these as inspiration to design a poster for the Welcome Home Tea Dance. Yipworld 

Star Poster Designers are: Ayesha Mushtag, Andrew James, Carlie Smith, Hollie Malone, Kayligh Barr, Leah McHardy, Molly McIlvaney, Niamh Connolly, Nola Pierotti, Paige McGuire, Rebecca Ferguson, Sophie Brown and art tutor Hollie Bates. The posters are awesome!

War-time Cooking
Tuesday 30th October at the Riverside Centre, Ayr Road. Cross-generational and inclusive. Soup and baking. We cooked soup and sweet-bites for 30 guests under the guidance of the Buns R Us group and staff. It was delicious!

WW1 themed evening talks and presentations 
Thursday 1st November – Baird Institute, Lugar Street, Cumnock. East Ayrshire Leisure gave an illustrated talk on their WW1 Collections.

Thursday 8th November – Baird Institute. Cumnock History Group present the story of the Cumnock War Memorials and how they were funded.

Drop-in Reminiscence Events 
Friday 2nd Saturday 3rd November. Baird Institute, Lugar Street, Cumnock. We identified recorded and researched Cumnock Parish Medals, War Medals, photos, letters and family stories.

War Horse Family Film Night 
Friday 9th November. Barrhill Community Centre, Barrhill Road, Cumnock. Steven Spielberg’s epic adventure. A tale of incredible loyalty, hope and tenacity. Great Film!

Welcome Home Tea Dance
Saturday 10th November. Cumnock Town Hall, Glaisnock Street. Based on the dance given for men and women returning from the war in 1919, this was late afternoon entertainment for all ages and was sold-out!

With WW1 themed tunes from Sanquhar & District Silver Band, Strings n Things, Cumnock Academy Orchestra, CAMPS, Heart & Soul Choir and other guests. 
Tea, coffee, cakes, sandwiches and dancing! 
There was a WW1 themed dressing-up box available on the day and people came in their own war outfit and got their photos taken.

The Cumnock Roll of Honour with over 800 names was displayed in the Keir Hardie Room alongside the WW2 Pennylands POW Camp exhibition. 

Remembrance Day Events - Organised by local churches
Sunday 11th November 
Remembrance Service - Lugar Parish Church

Act of Remembrance at War Memorial - Lugar Parish Church

Service of Remembrance - Cumnock Cemetery. Service and laying of a selection of the painted stones around the war memorial. Wreath laying by groups and organisations 

United Service of Commemoration - Cumnock Square & Parish Church. Cadets and Pipe Band in the Square. Welcome and call to prayer. Readings from the Front Line and the Trenches. 

Bugler played Last Post. Prayer and hymn.
Piper played Lament. All Churches rang out their bells across the town for 10 minutes.
Bugler played Reveille then the Benediction.

Our thanks also to:
Sergeant Rab McMillan and Raven for all their military advice.
Baldy Bane Theatre Company for the loan of the fab costumes.
Police Scotland Youth Volunteers for their invaluable help.
Michelle Laats, Craig Brown, Kris LeMay and Michael Shaw of EAL for their services at the Town Hall.
Bruce Morgan and Mari Monaghan of EAL for their use of the Baird Institute.
Tesco’s Auchinleck for help with the Painted Stones Project.
John Senior, Helen Ng and Janice Hendry from Cumnock Action Plan for their generous support.
John Campbell of the Dumfries Arms Hotel for loaning us the crockery.
Sergeant Rab McMillan and Raven for welcoming us to the proceedings with such aplomb.
CAMPS for showing Warhorse on a rainy windy night.
Shaun Lowrie for his fantastic support.
And the people of Cumnock and the surrounding area for supporting all the events.
We are grateful to Morrison Construction for donating the stones and art materials for the Memorial Stones Project.

Cumnock Armistice Events were supported by Cumnock Action Plan and the Corra Foundation.

Welcome Home Dance 1919

After several months of serious fundraising, the dance was held on the evening of Friday 10 December 1919 in Cumnock Town Hall with an expected audience of over 600. Cumnock Parish Medals would be presented to those who served and were in attendance - this took quite a while. Speeches were made by newly elected Provost Andrew Millar, Brigadier-General Pollok-McCall, Colonel John D Boswell, the Women’s Work Party Committee, representatives from the Town Council, Parish Council, Education Authority, and from the various committees of the War Memorial and Welcome Home Fund.


Town Hall December 2019 - 100th Anniversary

The large hall was beautifully decorated for the occasion with flags and streamers, a large banner with the words ‘Welcome Home’ occupying a prominent place. The hall was filled with about 340 soldiers and their partners, and while they were assembling Tom Buck’s orchestra of six players played spirited selections. Had it been possible to secure a building capable of holding thousands instead of hundreds it would have been filled to overflowing – everyone being anxious to be associated with what must have been regarded as a unique and historic gathering.
Typical Hall decorations in wartime

The presentation of souvenir Cumnock Parish Medals was then proceeded with - this had been so well organised that the 340 medals were handed over in record time. Each man had been supplied with a number, and was seated in the hall accordingly. They were called out into the entrance lobby in fifties and marshalled into order leading to the platform door. As the name of each soldier was called out he advanced to the table in the centre of the platform, where he received his medal from Miss Urquhart, secretary of the Work Party, and returned to his seat by way of the other end of the platform. A continuous round of applause was kept up during this ceremony and several of the recipients came in for a special cheer.
Colonel Boswell, in proposing a vote of thanks to the Work Party, told how much their parcels of comforts and good things were appreciated and looked forward to by the soldiers. The hall was quickly cleared of the seats and dancing was soon in full swing. 
Meanwhile the first of four relays sat down to tea in the lesser hall, and here the work of the Work Party was much in evidence. But that did not finish the labours of the women and their many willing assistants, for, after everybody had been “tead,” the lesser hall was converted into a running buffet, and there was an unlimited supply of everything right up till the close at two-thirty. In the Council Chambers downstairs ices and aerated waters were dispensed and taken full advantage of. By all accounts there was nothing but the highest praise from the guests for the very generous way in which they had been entertained. The attractions in the various refreshment rooms relieved the congestion in the dancing hall, where, under the supervision of Hugh Blackwood and Herbert Morton, the big company enjoyed themselves to the full. Without a doubt the Welcome Home celebration was long remembered by all who had the pleasure of taking part in it.

From a Cumnock Chronicle article 1919

Duncan Cameron

Duncan Cameron was born on 13 April 1893 and the youngest son of Duncan and Annie Anderson. When he left school he served as an apprentice millwright with George McCarneys Engineering Works, Cumnock then Lugar Ironworks as a mechanical engineer. He then moved to Glasgow where he worked at John Brown's Shipyard and helped build the naval battleships HMS Repulse and HMS Barham.

Duncan and John Cameron

He joined the Royal Scots Fusiliers c1915

He married Grace Lang on 31 December 1920 in Bothwell, Lanarkshire and they emigrated to Canada in 1927 to live with his older brother John where he worked on the Canadian National Railway.

Duncan Cameron 1964

He then married Ellen May Willcott in 1964 in Vancouver. where he died on 25 October 1969 at the age of 76 and was buried in Burnaby, Canada.



HMS Repulse
HMS Barham



John Cameron

John Cameron was born on 28 November 1885 in Glaisnock Street,  Cumnock. His father Duncan and his mother Annie Bowie Anderson had 4 other boys and 2 girls.

He was a stonemason and worked on the construction of Crichton Memorial Church in Ayr Road Cumnock and other Cumnock buildings. He married Agnes McCall in New Cumnock in 1908. They emigrated to Canada in April 1911 and had three children during their marriage. 

Brothers Duncan and John Cameron 1914.

He enlisted as a Private in the Canadian Over-seas Expeditionary Force in January 1916 when he was living in Vancouver. On his attestation papers he was described as being 30, 5' 6", blue eyes, sandy hair and a fair complexion.

University of British Columbia Library

John worked as a mason on many of Vancouver's public buildings including the University of British Columbia Library and Chemistry Building.

John in 1930

He died on 3 October 1939 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, at the age of 53, and was buried there. Family on Cumnock Connections Tree.

Crichton Memorial Church build 1899. John is 3rd from left on front row.
Lugar Street, Cumnock 1905. John is3rd from left.

Cumnock Parish Medals

Cumnock Parish Medal
Cumnock Parish Medal Reverse
An article in the Cumnock Chronicle from August 1919 estimated that the cost of the medals would be between £600 and £700 but the same paper reports that in March 1920 that the War Memorial Committee treasurer be authorised to pay the account of £327 for the 728 medals supplied and to suggest they endeavour to get a rebate on that figure for the failure of the firm Fattorini & Sons of  Bradford to supply cases with the medals.
The medal is silver and enamel in design. On the obverse is a circle of blue enamel with the words ‘Parish of Old Cumnock.’ In the centre the old Mercat Cross stands out in relief, surrounded by a laurel wreath in green and with the rising sun and its rays reflected behind the Cross. 
For those who returned, the reverse of the medal was inscribed - “Presented to - - for services rendered during the Great War – 1914-1919.” And for the fallen - “In remembrance of - - who gave his life in the Great War – 1914-1919.” 
Above this is the Fattorini & Sons Bradford imprint and underneath some assay marks: the Anchor mark for Birmingham, the Lion mark for sterling silver and a date letter for 1919. 



William Reid, George Kirkland, George Reid,
JamesAnderson, John Laing, Peter Devlin,
William Crawford.




Information on Regiments

Some information about the regiments mentioned in this blog.

The London Scottish was a Volunteer infantry regiment of the British Army. Formerly a regiment, the unit is now 'A' (London Scottish) Company of the London Regiment.

The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was a rifle regiment of the British Army, the only regiment of rifles amongst the Scottish regiments of infantry. It was formed in 1881 under the Childers Reforms by the amalgamation of the 26th Cameronian Regiment and the 90th Perthshire Light Infantry. In 1968, when reductions were required, the regiment chose to be disbanded rather than amalgamated with another regiment, one of only two infantry regiments in the British Army to do so, with the other being the York and Lancaster Regiment. It can trace its roots to that of the Cameronians, later the 26th of Foot, who were raised in 1689. The 1881 amalgamation coincided with the Cameronian's selection to become the new Scottish Rifles.

The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. Originally raised in 1674 as the 5th Regiment of Foot, it was given the regional designation 'Northumberland' in 1782 and granted the distinction of being a Fusilier regiment in 1836, becoming 5th (Northumberland Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot. The regiment adopted the title Northumberland Fusiliers when regimental numbers were abolished under the Childers Reforms of 1881 and became the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers on 3 June 1935. In 1968, the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, after service in many wars, including both World War I and World War II, were amalgamated with the other regiments in the Fusilier Brigade–the Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment), the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and the Lancashire Fusiliers–to form the present Royal Regiment of Fusiliers.

The King's Own Scottish Borderers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Scottish Division. On 28 March 2006 the regiment was amalgamated with the Royal Scots, the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment), the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment), the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons) and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 1st Battalion of the new regiment.

The Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's) was a historic line infantry regiment of the British Army, mainly associated with large areas of the northern Highlands of Scotland. The regiment existed from 1881 to 1961, and saw service in World War I and World War II, along with many numerous smaller conflicts. In 1961 the regiment was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders to form the Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons), which merged, in 1994, with the Gordon Highlanders to form the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons). This, however, later joined the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch, the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to create the present Royal Regiment of Scotland.

The Lanarkshire Yeomanry was a yeomanry regiment of the British Army, first raised in 1819, which served as a dismounted infantry regiment in the First World War and provided two field artillery regiments in the Second World War, before being amalgamated into The Queen's Own Lowland Yeomanry in 1956. Its lineage was revived by B (Lanarkshire and Queen's Own Royal Glasgow Yeomanry) Squadron, the Scottish Yeomanry in 1992 until that unit was disbanded in 1999.

The Royal Field Artillery (RFA) of the British Army provided close artillery support for the infantry. It came into being when created as a distinct arm of the Royal Regiment of Artillery on 1 July 1899, and was re-amalgamated back into the Regiment proper, along with the Royal Garrison Artillery, in 1924.[2] The Royal Field Artillery was the largest arm of the artillery. It was responsible for the medium calibre guns and howitzers deployed close to the front line and was reasonably mobile. It was organised into brigades, attached to divisions or higher formations.

The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace. Together with the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, the Royal Army Dental Corps and Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, the RAMC forms the Army Medical Services.

The Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland (3 SCOTS) is an infantry battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The regiment was created as part of the Childers Reforms in 1881, when the 42nd (Royal Highland) Regiment of Foot (The Black Watch) was amalgamated with the 73rd (Perthshire) Regiment of Foot. It was known as The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) from 1881 to 1931 and The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) from 1931 to 2006. Part of the Scottish Division for administrative purposes from 1967, it was the senior Highland regiment. It has been part of the Scottish, Welsh and Irish Division for administrative purposes from 2017.

The Gordon Highlanders was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed for 113 years, from 1881 until 1994, when it was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons) to form the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons).

Originally formed as the Canadian Infantry Corps on 2 September 1942 to encompass all existing infantry regiments, including regiments of foot guards, in the Canadian Army. The corps was granted its "royal" designation in 1947 and was designated Royal Canadian Infantry Corps 30 April 1947, to be redesignated The Royal Canadian Infantry Corps 22 March 1948, and revert to Royal Canadian Infantry Corps 17 February 1964.

The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; French: Forces armées canadiennes, FAC), or Canadian Forces (CF) (French: Forces canadiennes, FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."

The Scots Guards (SG), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. Their origins lie in the personal bodyguard of King Charles I of England and Scotland. Its lineage can be traced back to 1642, although it was only placed on the English Establishment (thus becoming part of what is now the British Army) in 1686. The Regiment is the oldest formed Regiment in the Regular Army in service today.

The Royal Field Artillery (RFA) of the British Army provided close artillery support for the infantry. It came into being when created as a distinct arm of the Royal Regiment of Artillery on 1 July 1899, and was re-amalgamated back into the Regiment proper, along with the Royal Garrison Artillery, in 1924. The Royal Field Artillery was the largest arm of the artillery. It was responsible for the medium calibre guns and howitzers deployed close to the front line and was reasonably mobile. It was organised into brigades, attached to divisions or higher formations.

The Highland Light Infantry (HLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army formed in 1881. It took part in the First and Second World Wars, until it was amalgamated with the Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1959 to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) which later merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment), the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons) and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 2nd Battalion of the new regiment.

The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment), formerly the 3rd Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army traditionally raised in the English county of Kent and garrisoned at Canterbury. It had a history dating back to 1572 and was one of the oldest regiments in the British Army, being third in order of precedence (ranked as the 3rd Regiment of the line). The regiment provided distinguished service over a period of almost four hundred years accumulating one hundred and sixteen battle honours. In 1881, under the Childers Reforms, it was known as the Buffs (East Kent Regiment) and later, on 3 June 1935, was renamed the Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment).

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

The Connaught Rangers ("The Devil's Own") were an Irish line infantry regiment of the British Army formed by the amalgamation of the 88th Regiment of Foot (Connaught Rangers) (which formed the 1st Battalion) and the 94th Regiment of Foot (which formed the 2nd Battalion) in July 1881. Between the time of its formation and Irish independence, it was one of eight Irish regiments raised largely in Ireland. Its home depot was in Galway. It was disbanded following the establishment of the independent Irish Free State in 1922, along with the other five regiments that had their traditional recruiting grounds in the counties of the new state.

The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1881 until amalgamation into the Royal Regiment of Scotland on 28 March 2006, from when it became a single battalion therein. The regiment was created under the Childers Reforms in 1881, as the Princess Louise's (Sutherland and Argyll Highlanders), by the amalgamation of the 91st (Argyllshire Highlanders) Regiment of Foot and 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot, amended the following year to reverse the order of the "Argyll" and "Sutherland" sub-titles. The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders was expanded to fifteen battalions during the First World War (1914–1918) and nine during the Second World War (1939–1945). The 1st Battalion served in the 1st Commonwealth Division in the Korean War and gained a high public profile for its role in Aden during 1967.

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer. The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and around the world.

The Highland Light Infantry (HLI) was a light infantry regiment of the British Army formed in 1881. It took part in the First and Second World Wars, until it was amalgamated with the Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1959 to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) which later merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment), the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons) and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland, becoming the 2nd Battalion of the new regiment.

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world.[4] Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. It played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain.

The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy, under the direction of the Admiralty's Air Department, and existed formally from 1 July 1914 to 1 April 1918, when it was merged with the British Army's Royal Flying Corps to form the Royal Air Force, the world's first independent air force.

The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders or 79th (The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders) Regiment of Foot was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1793. It amalgamated with the Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's) to form the Queen's Own Highlanders in 1961.

The Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence for just under 90 years, from 1881 to 1970. In 1970, the regiment was amalgamated with the Worcestershire Regiment to form the Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters Regiment, which in 2007 was amalgamated with the Cheshire Regiment and the Staffordshire Regiment (Prince of Wales's) to form the present Mercian Regiment. The lineage of the Sherwood Foresters is now continued by the 2nd Battalion, Mercian Regiment.

The Royal Scots (The Royal Regiment), once known as the Royal Regiment of Foot, was the oldest and most senior infantry regiment of the line of the British Army, having been raised in 1633 during the reign of Charles I of Scotland. The regiment existed continuously until 2006, when it amalgamated with the King's Own Scottish Borderers to become the Royal Scots Borderers, which merged with the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment), the Black Watch, the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons) and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to form the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

The Royal Canadian Infantry Corps (French: Corps d'infanterie royal canadien) is the infantry corps of the Canadian Army and includes regular and reserve force regiments. Originally formed as the Canadian Infantry Corps on 2 September 1942 to encompass all existing infantry regiments, including regiments of foot guards, in the Canadian Army. The corps was granted its "royal" designation in 1947 and was designated Royal Canadian Infantry Corps 30 April 1947, to be redesignated The Royal Canadian Infantry Corps 22 March 1948, and revert to Royal Canadian Infantry Corps 17 February 1964.

The Royal Army Service Corps (RASC) was a corps of the British Army responsible for land, coastal and lake transport, air despatch, barracks administration, the Army Fire Service, staffing headquarters' units, supply of food, water, fuel and domestic materials such as clothing, furniture and stationery and the supply of technical and military equipment. In 1965 its functions were divided between other Corps (RCT and RAOC) and the RASC ceased to exist; subsequently, in 1993, they in their turn (with some functions of the Royal Engineers) became the "Forming Corps" of the Royal Logistic Corps.

The Gordon Highlanders was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed for 113 years, from 1881 until 1994, when it was amalgamated with the Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons) to form the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons).

Voluntary Aid Detachment. A voluntary unit of civilians providing nursing care for military personnel in the United Kingdom and various other countries in the British Empire.

Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps
The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps was formed in 1917 and played an important part in the war – despite the initial obstacles put in its way.

The Royal Scots Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army that existed from 1678 until 1959 when it was amalgamated with the Highland Light Infantry (City of Glasgow Regiment) to form the Royal Highland Fusiliers (Princess Margaret's Own Glasgow and Ayrshire Regiment) which was later itself merged with the Royal Scots Borderers, the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment), the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and the Highlanders (Seaforth, Gordons and Camerons) to form a new large regiment, the Royal Regiment of Scotland.

The Motor Machine Gun Service (MMGS) was a unit of the British Army in the First World War, consisting of batteries of motorcycle/sidecar combinations carrying Vickers machine guns. It was formed in 1914 and incorporated into the Machine Gun Corps in October 1915 as the Machine Gun Corps (Motors).

The Ayrshire (Earl of Carrick's Own) Yeomanry was a Regiment of the British Yeomanry and is now an armoured Squadron of the Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry (SNIY), part of the British Army Reserve. It is the Lowlands of Scotland's only Royal Armoured Corps Unit and has an unbroken history stretching back to the 1790s. The Squadron is part of 51st (Scottish) Brigade within the Army's Support Command. The Scottish and North Irish Yeomanry is the only yeomanry regiment that serves in the reconnaissance role, equipped with the Wolf Land Rover with Weapons Mount Installation Kit (WMIK) and with HMG (heavy machine gun 12.7mm L1A1) and GMPG (General purpose machine gun 7.62mm L7A2). On mobilisation, it provides squadrons to reinforce the regular Light Cavalry regiments. It has provided personnel to both Operation HERRICK in Afghanistan and Operation TELIC in Iraq, who have served with their regular counterparts in the Royal Armoured Corps and other arms and services.

The Life Guards (LG) is the senior regiment of the British Army and part of the Household Cavalry, along with the Blues and Royals.

The Northamptonshire Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 until 1960. In 1960, it was amalgamated with the Royal Lincolnshire Regiment to form the 2nd East Anglian Regiment (Duchess of Gloucester's Own Royal Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire), which was amalgamated with the 1st East Anglian Regiment (Royal Norfolk and Suffolk), the 3rd East Anglian Regiment (16th/44th Foot) and the Royal Leicestershire Regiment to form the present Royal Anglian Regiment.

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer. The Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and around the world.

The Royal Dublin Fusiliers was an Irish infantry Regiment of the British Army created in 1881, one of eight Irish regiments raised and garrisoned in Ireland, with its home depot in Naas. The Regiment was created by the amalgamation of two British Army regiments in India, the Royal Bombay Fusiliers and Royal Madras Fusiliers, with Dublin and Kildare militia units as part of the Childers Reforms that created larger regiments and linked them with "Regimental Districts". Both regular battalions of the Regiment fought in the Second Boer War. In the First World War, a further six battalions were raised and the regiment saw action on the Western Front, the Mediterranean, and the Middle East. In the course of the war three Victoria Cross were awarded. Following the establishment of the independent Irish Free State in 1922, the five regiments that had their traditional recruiting grounds in the counties of the new state were disbanded.

The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the air arm of the British Army before and during the First World War, until it merged with the Royal Naval Air Service on 1 April 1918 to form the Royal Air Force. During the early part of the war, the RFC supported the British Army by artillery co-operation and photographic reconnaissance. This work gradually led RFC pilots into aerial battles with German pilots and later in the war included the strafing of enemy infantry and emplacements, the bombing of German military airfields and later the strategic bombing of German industrial and transport facilities. At the start of World War I the RFC, commanded by Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, consisted of five squadrons – one observation balloon squadron (RFC No 1 Squadron) and four aeroplane squadrons. These were first used for aerial spotting on 13 September 1914 but only became efficient when they perfected the use of wireless communication at Aubers Ridge on 9 May 1915. Aerial photography was attempted during 1914, but again only became effective the next year. By 1918, photographic images could be taken from 15,000 feet and were interpreted by over 3,000 personnel. Parachutes were not available to pilots of heavier-than-air craft in the RFC – nor were they used by the RAF during the First World War – although the Calthrop Guardian Angel parachute (1916 model) was officially adopted just as the war ended. By this time parachutes had been used by balloonists for three years.

The Royal Horse Artillery (RHA) was formed in 1793 as a distinct arm of the Royal Regiment of Artillery (commonly termed Royal Artillery) of the British Army. Horses are still in service for ceremonial purposes but were phased out from operational deployment during the 1930s. The Royal Horse Artillery, currently consists of three regiments, (1 RHA, 3 RHA and 7 RHA) and one ceremonial unit (King's Troop Royal Horse Artillery). Almost all the batteries of the Royal Horse Artillery have served continuously since the French Revolutionary Wars or Napoleonic Wars, except the King's Troop which has existed since 1946 and M Battery which was 'reanimated' in 1993.

The Dorset Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1958, being the county regiment of Dorset. Until 1951, it was formally called the Dorsetshire Regiment, although usually known as "The Dorsets". In 1958, after service in the Second Boer War along with World War I and World War II, the Dorset Regiment was amalgamated with the Devonshire Regiment to form the Devonshire and Dorset Regiment. In 2007, it was amalgamated with the Royal Gloucestershire, Berkshire and Wiltshire Regiment, The Light Infantry and the Royal Green Jackets to form a new large regiment, The Rifles.

The Royal Australian Infantry Corps (RA Inf) is the parent corps for all infantry regiments of the Australian Army. It was established on 14 December 1948, with its Royal Corps status being conferred by His Majesty King George VI. At her coronation in 1953, Queen Elizabeth II became Colonel-in-Chief of the corps.[1] Major components of the RA Inf include the various battalions of the Royal Australian Regiment and the six state-based Reserve infantry regiments, such as the Royal New South Wales Regiment. The various Regional Force Surveillance and Special Forces units of the Army are also part of the corps. The Infantry School is located at Singleton, New South Wales, and forms part of the Combined Arms Training Centre. The "Head of Corps – Infantry" is usually a Brigadier and is the Honorary Colonel of the Royal Australian Regiment.

The New Zealand Rifle Brigade (Earl of Liverpool's Own), affectionately known as The Dinks, was formed on 1 May 1915 as the 3rd Brigade of the New Zealand Division, part of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. During the First World War it fought in Egypt, against the Senussi, and then on the Western Front. It was disbanded on 4 February 1919.

The Machine Gun Corps (MGC) was a corps of the British Army, formed in October 1915 in response to the need for more effective use of machine guns on the Western Front in the First World War. The Heavy Branch of the MGC was the first to use tanks in combat and was subsequently turned into the Tank Corps, later called the Royal Tank Regiment. The MGC remained in existence after the war until it was disbanded in 1922. Manor Hospital in 1916, the asylum was requisitioned by the Army Council and became the Manor War Hospital. All mental patients were transferred to other institutions and the hospital used to treat soldiers wounded in the First World War.


The Royal Army Ordnance Corps (RAOC) was a corps of the British Army. At its renaming as a Royal Corps in 1918 it was both a supply and repair corps. In the supply area it had responsibility for weapons, armoured vehicles and other military equipment, ammunition and clothing and certain minor functions such as laundry, mobile baths and photography. The RAOC was also responsible for a major element of the repair of Army equipment. In 1942 the latter function was transferred to the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME) and the vehicle storage and spares responsibilities of the Royal Army Service Corps were in turn passed over to the RAOC. The RAOC retained repair responsibilities for ammunition, clothing and certain ranges of general stores. In 1964 the McLeod Reorganisation of Army Logistics resulted in the RAOC absorbing petroleum, rations and accommodation stores functions from the Royal Army Service Corps as well as the Army Fire Service, barrack services, sponsorship of NAAFI (EFI) and the management of staff clerks from the same Corps. On 5 April 1993, the RAOC was one of the corps that amalgamated to form The Royal Logistic Corps (RLC).